Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Citation Format: ICMJE/NLM Style

Utilize these resources to learn more about popular citation styles used in the health sciences.

 

undefined

NLM Citation Style refers to the citation style from the National Library of Medicine and used by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Use the information and examples provided on this page to properly format in-text and reference list citations. 


The Reference List

Your reference list should begin on a new page following the text of your paper. Here, you will include complete citations for the resources you've used in your writing. 
Tips for formatting your reference list:
  • Do not indent if the citation extends to a second line.
  • Authors are listed with the surname first followed by the first and middle initials without periods. (E.g.: Skinner BF)
  • List all authors, regardless of the total number
  • Separate author names by a comma and a space
  • Journal titles abbreviated according to the NLM Catalog of NCBI Journals.
  • In journal or book titles, capitalize only the first word and proper nouns.
  • When URLs are used, ensure that they are as direct as possible and the link still functions as close to publication as possible.

 

In-Text Citations

You must also cite your references within the text of your paper.
ICMJE/NLM allows for variation in the in-text citation style.  Use the examples below to learn more about in-text styles and how they impact your reference list.  Ensure that you stay consistent between your in-text and reference list citation decisions. 

 

Sequence System 

In this system, in-text citations are denoted by superscript numbers that correspond to the order in which your references appear in the text. 

undefined

** Click to enlarge
Tips for formatting your reference list:
  • References are numbered in consecutive order in the text, tables, or figures.
  • Use superscript Arabic numerals (see example below).  The first reference used in the documents should be listed first on the reference list.
  • Where to insert superscript numbers:
    • Immediately next to the fact, idea or quotation being cited.
    • Outside periods and commas.
    • Inside colons and semi-colons
  • If a reference is used multiple times in the same paper, use the same number throughout.
  • When more than two references are cited at one give place, use hyphens to join the first and last numbers of the series; use commas without space to separate other parts of multiple citations 1,4-7,19,24.
  • You may refer to the author's name (last name only) in the text of your paper, as long as these are accompanied by a numbered citation.

 

Citation-Name System 

In this system, in-text citations are denoted by superscript numbers that correspond to the order in which your referenences appear in your alphabetized reference list. 

undefined

** Click to enlarge
Tips for formatting your reference list:
  • References are numbered alphabetically according to author's last name.
  • Use superscript Arabic numerals (see example above).
  • Arrange references by the same author in order of the most recent publication date.
  • Where to insert superscript numbers:
    • Immediately next to the fact, idea, or quotation being cited.
    • Outside periods and commas.
    • Inside colons and semi-colons
  • If a reference is used multiple times in the same paper, use the same number throughout.
  • When more than two references are cited at one give place, use hyphens to join the first and last numbers of the series; use commas without space to separate other parts of multiple citations 1,4-7,19,24.
  • You may refer to the author's name (last name only) in the text of your paper, as long as these are accompanied by a numbered citation.

 

Name-Year System 

In this system, in-text citations are denoted by the surname of the author(s) and document's year of publication enclosed in parentheses.

undefined

** Click to enlarge
Tips for formatting your reference list:
  • References are numbered alphabetically according to author's last name.
  • Arrange references by the same author in order of the most recent publication date.
  • Where to insert parenthetical citation:
    • Immediately next to the fact, idea, or quotation being cited.
    • Outside periods and commas.
    • Inside colons and semi-colons

Cite a Record

Items in Discovery@RML search results include buttons to Cite, Link, Email, Save. These buttons appear on the results list, and in the detailed record.

"Cite A Record" displays two options:
  •  Export a citation to EndNote, to RefWorks if you have access to these services. If you use a different citation management software, such as EasyBib, Mendeley, or Zotero, choose Export to RIS which creates a file of tagged data.
  • Copy a citation by selecting a style from the drop/down list of 10 citation styles then copying the formatted citation to your document.
►It is still your responsibility to proofread the citation for accuracy! Pay close attention to capitalization and the formatting of names and pages. The citation may indicate missing data that you need to insert to complete your citation. Copying and pasting may result in the loss of indentation or formatting.

NLM Books

undefined

Entry Type Reference List 
Book - Single Author

Author(s). Book title. Publisher City (State): Publisher; year.

Jenkins PF. Making sense of the chest x-ray: a hands-on guide. New York (NY): Oxford University Press; 2005. 

Book - Multiple Authors

Authors(s) separated by commas. Title of book, edition. Publisher City (State): Publisher; year.

Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology, 4th ed. St. Louis (MO): Mosby; 2002.

Book - with Editors 

Authors(s) separated by commas, editors. Title of book, edition. Publisher City (State): Publisher; year.

Ryan KJ, Ray CG, Sherris JC, editors. Sherris medical microbiology. 5th ed. New York (NY): McGraw-Hill Medical; 2010.

Book - Chapter 

Author(s). of chapter. Title of chapter. In: names of editor(s), editors. Title of book., edition. Publisher City (State): Publisher; year. p. chapter page number(s). 

Jacob E. Pain assessment and management in children. In: Hockenberry MU, Wilson D, editors. Wong's essentials of pediatric nursing. 9th ed. St. Louis (MO): Elsevier/Mosby; 2013. p. 144-184.

Book - Online 

Author(s). Title of book [Internet]. Edition. Publisher City (State) Publisher; year [cite date accessed]. Available from: URL

Morton DA, Foreman KB, Albertine KH. The big picture: gross anatomy [Internet]. New York (NY): McGraw-Hill Companies; 2011 [cited 2014 May 1]. Available from: http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=381

 

NLM Journals

undefined

Entry Type Reference List 
Article - Print, Single Author

Author(s). Title of article. Abbreviated Journal Title. Year Month Day; vol(issue): pages. 

Petitti DB. Blood pressure levels before dementia. Arch Neurol. 2005 Jan;62(1:112-6.

Article - Print, Multiple Authors

Menten P, Jeunemaitre X, de Wardener HE, MacGregor GA. Links between dietary salt intake, renal salt handling, blood pressure, and cardiovascular diseases. Physiol Rev. 2005 Apr;85(2):679-715.

*List all authors regardless of number.

*If you decide to limit the number of authors be consistent with your numbering, either list  3 or 6 authors and then "et al." or "and others".

Article - Online, URL

Author(s). Title of article. Abbreviated Journal Title [Internet]. Year Month Day [cite date accessed];vol(issue): pages. Available from: URL

Happell B. The influence of education on the career preferences of undergraduate nursing students. Aust Electron J Nurs Educ [Internet]. 2002 Apr [cited 2007 Jan 8];8(1):167-79. Available from: http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/nhcp/aejne/vol8-1/refereed/happell_max.html

Article - Online, DOI

Author(s). Title of article. Abbreviated Journal Title [Internet]. Year Month Day [cite date accessed];vol(issue):pages. Available from: URL doi:DOI number

Puri S, O'Brian MR. The hmuQ and humu D genes from Bradyrhizobium japonicum encode heme-degrading ensymes. J Bacteriol [Internet]. 2006 Sep [cited 2007 Jan 8];188(18):6476-82. Available from: http://jb.asm.org/cgi/content/full/188/18/6476?view=long&pmid=16952937 doi: 10.1128/JB.00737-06

 

NLM Miscellaneous

undefined

 

Entry Type Reference List
Website

Title of homepage [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; date of publication of homepage. Title of page on the website; date of publication of page [cited date accessed]; [pages]. Available from: URL.

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Health and Human Services; 2012. Understanding health news: complementary health approaches in the news; [modified 2013 Nov 7, cited 2014 May 2]. Available from: http://nccam.nih/gov/health/undetstanding-health-news

Website - No Date

Title of homepage [Internet]. Place of publication. Publisher; [cite date accessed]. Available from: URL.

The Kennedy Institute of Ethics [Internet]. Washington: The Institute; [cited 2007 Mar 22]. Available from: http://kennedyinstitute.georgetown.edu/.

Blog Post

Author. Title of Blog [Internet]. Place of Publication: Publisher. Date of Publication [cite date accessed]. Available from: URL. 

Bernstein M. Bioethics Discussion Blog [Internet]. Los Angeles: Maurice Bernstein. 2004 Jul - [cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://bioethicsdiscussion.blogspot.com/

Government Report - Online 

Author(s) or responsible body (Author affiliation or performing organization). Title of report [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; Year Month Day of publication [cite date accessed]. Total number of pages p. Report No.: Report Number. Contract No.: contract number. Available from: URL

Ip S, Chung M, Raman G, Chew P, Magula N, DeVine D, Trikalinos T, Lau J (Tufts-New England Medical Center Evidence-based Practice center, Boston, MA). Breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes in developed countries [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: 2007 Apr [cited 2014 May 1]. 415 p. Report.: 153. Contract No.: 290-02-0022. Available from: http://archive.ahrq.gov/downloads/pub/evidence/pdf/brfout/brfout.pdf

Online Video

Title of homepage [Internet]. Place of publication: Publisher; date of publication of homepage. [Video], Title of video; date of publication of video [cited date viewed]; [length of video]. Available from: URL

MedlinePlus: trusted health information for you [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Library of Medicine (US). National Institutes of Helath; 2014 May 1. [Video]. Bilateral myringotomy tube placement; 2013 Jun 15 [cited 2014 May 2]. [5 min., 7 sec.]. Available from: http://orlive.com/broward-health/videos/bilateral-myringotomy-tube-placement

Image - Online

Author(s). Title of article. Abbreviated Journal Name [Internet]. Year Month Day; vol(issue): pages. Figure or Table, Title of figure or name; [cite date accessed]; p. number of page, figure, or table is located. Available from: URL. 

Gottlieb S. Short does of antibiotic helps against Lyme disease. BMJ [Internet[. 2001 Jun 23; 322(7301). 1506. Figure, Deer tick: responsible for spreading Lyme disease; [cited 2014 May 2]; p.1506. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1120563/pdf/1506a.pdf

Image - Online Book 

Authors(s). Title of book [Internet]. Edition. CIty (US State abbreviation or Country): Publisher; year. [Figure or Table] Title of figure; [cite date accessed]; [page]. Available from: URL

Morton DA. Foreman KB. Albertine KH. The big picture: gross anatomy [Internet]. New York (NY): McGraw-Hill Companies; 2011. [Table 32-1] Muscles of the forearm; [cited 2014 May 2]; [about 2 screens]. Available from: http://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=381&sectionid=40140042

Thesis/Dissertation 

Author. Title of book [dissertation or master's thesis]. [Place of publication]: Publisher; year of completion. Number of pages p. 

Frank ST. Source of synaptic contracts of nitric oxide signaling circuitry in the primary visual thalamus: the mouse as a comparative model of thalamic form and function [dissertation]. [Winston-Salem (NC)]: Wake Forest University; 2005. 181p.

Drug Monograph 

Specific database or Author(s). Title of Database [Internet]. Place of Publication. Publisher. Date of Publication of Database. Title of Part. [Date of Update (if applicable); cite accessed date]. Available from: URL

Pichler, WJ. UpToDate [Internet]. Waltham, MA: UpToDate. 2019. Drug hypersensitivity; Classification and clinical features; [updated 2019 Feb 18: 2019 Mar 1]. Available from: http://www.uptodate.com/