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Citation Format: APA Style

Utilize these resources to learn more about popular citation styles used in the health sciences.

 

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APA Citation refers to the citation and manual of style from the American Psychological Association. Use the information and examples provided on this page to properly format in-text and reference list citations. 
The previous edition of the APA Manual of Style is available for review within Rowland Medical Library. 
Learn more about the most notable changes in APA 7th ed

 

The Reference List

Your reference list should begin on a new page following the text of your paper. Here, you will include complete citations for the resources you've used in your writing. 
Tips for formatting your reference list:
  • Begin the list on a new page with the title "References" centered at the top.
  • The entire list should be double-spaced.
  • Authors are listed with the last name first followed by the first and middle initials. (E.g.: Skinner, B.F.)
  • The list should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each citation.
  • When citing books, Web pages, and periodicals, capitalize only the first word of the title and subtitle as well as proper nouns.
  • When citing academic journal articles, capitalize all major words in the journal-title.
  • Don't use quotation marks around titles of journal or periodical articles.
  • Publisher location is no longer needed, simply the name of the publisher.
  • Surnames and initials for up to 20 authors should be fully listed on the reference list.
  • Format DOIs the same as URLs; the label DOI is not necessary. (https://doi.org/10.1080/02686667.2018.1560449)
  • Do not include "Retrieved from" before a URL.

 

In-Text Citations

In addition to the Reference list, sources are also cited using the parenthetical author-date system in the text of your manuscript. 
You may word your in-text citation in several different ways to maximize the effectiveness of your writing. The most straightforward method is to include the author's (or authors') last name and the page number(s) following the quotation, idea, or fact you are citing.
Example:
There is not a strong correlation between a high GPA and students who began reading at an early age (Kahneman & Klein, 2009).
You may also refer to the author's name in the text of your paper. In this case, cite the date in parentheses following the author's name.
Example:
Kahneman & Klein (2009) found that there is not a strong correlation between a high GPA and early readers.
If you are using a direct quotation, include the page number where the quotation can be found.
Example:
"The correlation between early reading and graduating GPA is not high" (Kahneman & Klein, 2009, p. 522).

Cite a Record

Items in Discovery@RML search results include buttons to Cite, Link, Email, Save. These buttons appear on the results list, and in the detailed record.

"Cite A Record" displays two options:
  •  Export a citation to EndNote, to RefWorks if you have access to these services. If you use a different citation management software, such as EasyBib, Mendeley, or Zotero, choose Export to RIS which creates a file of tagged data.
  • Copy a citation by selecting a style from the drop/down list of 10 citation styles then copying the formatted citation to your document.
►It is still your responsibility to proofread the citation for accuracy! Pay close attention to capitalization and the formatting of names and pages. The citation may indicate missing data that you need to insert to complete your citation. Copying and pasting may result in the loss of indentation or formatting.

Books

Entry Type

Reference List

Book - print, single author

Author. (Year). Title of Book. Publisher.

Flanagan, O.J. (2007). Really hard problem: Meaning in a material world. MIT Press. 

Book - print, multiple Authors

Author(s). (Year). Title of Book (Edition). Publisher.

Strunk, W., Jones, T., & White, E.B. (1979). The elements of style (3rd ed.). Macmillian.

* Include up to 6 authors. If over 6 authors list all six, then insert three ellipsis points, and dd the last author's name.

Book - with editors

Author(s). (Eds.). (Year). Title of Book. Publisher.

Duncan, G.J., & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (1997). Consequences of growing up poor. Russell Sage Foundation.

Book - chapter

Author(s). (Year). Chapter Title. In Book Author(s) (Eds.)., Title of Book (pp. page numbers). Publisher.

Haybron, D.M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R.J. Larsen (Eds.)., The Science of subjective well-being (pp.17-43). Guilford Press.

Book - editions

Author. (Year). Title of Book (Edition.). Publisher.

Rottenberg, A.T. (2003). Elements of argument: A text and reader (7th ed.). Bedford/St. Martin's.

Book - online

Author(s). (Year). Title of Book. Publisher. URL

Samanez-Larkin, G.R. (Ed.). (2019). The aging brain: Functional adaptation across adulthood. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000143-000

*Only provide the URL or DOI if you have an open access eBook.  If not, then cite like a print book. 

 

ama Journals

Entry Type

Reference List

Journal - print, single author

Author. (Year). Author Title. Journal Title, Vol(Issue), page number(s).

Edmondson, J. (2002). The will of the people. The Reading Teacher, 55(5), 452.454.

Journal - print, multiple authors

Author(s). (Year). Article Title. Journal Title, Vol(Issue), page number(s).

Husain, A.N., Colby, T.V., Ordonez, N.G. Krausz, T., Borczuk, A., Cagle, P.T. & Wick, M.R. (2009). Guidelines for pathologic diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine133(8), 1317-1331.

Journal - online, DOI

Author(s). (Year). Article Title. Journal Title, Vol(Issue), page number(s). DOI as URL. 

Martens, S. & Valchev, N. (2009). Individual differences in the attentional blink: The important role of irrelevant information. Experimental Psychology56(1), 18-26. https://doi.org/10.1027/1618-3169.56.1.18

* Do not include the name of a database, except on occasion where the content is exclusive to the database.

Journal - online, URL

Author(s). (Year). Article Title. Journal Title, Vol(Issue), page number(s). URL

Royce, W.S. Gebelt, J.L., & Duff, R.W. (2003). Female athletes: Being both athletic and feminine. Athletic Insight, 5(1), 56-62. http://www.athleticinsight.com/VOL5Iss1/FeminineAthlete.htm

Journal - Cochrane Library

Author(s). (Year). Article Title. Cochrane Database Title. URL

Butterworth, A.D., Thomas A.G., & Akobeng, A.K. (2008).  Probiotics for induction of remission in Crohn's disease. Cochran Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD006634.pub2

Journal - ERIC database

Author(s). (Year). Article Title (ED number). ERIC. URL

Asio, J.M.R., & Gadio, E.D. (2019). Awareness and understanding of college students towards teacher bullying: Basis for policy inclusion in the student handbook (ED595107). ERIC. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED595107

*Use this example for non-periodical ERIC documents. 

Miscellaneous APA citation

Entry Term Reference List
Podcast

Author(s). (Publication Date). Episode Title (No. episode number) [Audio podcast episode]. In Podcast Title. Publisher. URL

Mars, R.(Host). (2019, September 30). The help-yourself city (No. 375) [Audio podcast episode]. In 99% invisible. Radiotopia. https://99percentinvisible.org/episode/the-help-yourself-city/

Website

Author(s). (Year). Page Title. Website Title. URL

Corcodilos, N. (2010). Keep your salary under wraps. Ask the Headhunter. http://asktheheadhuner.com/hasalary.htm

Website - no author, no date

Page Title. (n.d.). Website Title. URL

Appeal to authority. (n.d.). Logical Fallacies. https://www.logicalfallacies.org/appeal-to-authoirty.html

Blog Post

Author(s). (Publication date). Post Title. Website Title. URL

Headsman. (2009, August 17). 1909: Madanlal Dhingra, Indian revolutionary. ExecutedToday.com. http://www.executedtoday.com/2009/085/17/1909-mandnlal-dhingra-indian-revolutionary./

Government Report 

Author(s). (Year). Report Title (Working Paper No. Number). Publisher. URL

Haugen, S.E. (2009). Measures of labor underutilization from the current population study (Working Paper No. 424). Bureau of Labor Statistics. http://bls.gov/osmr/pdf/ec090020.pdf

Online Video 

Author(s). [Screenname]. (Publication date). Video Title [Video]. Publisher. URL

Jones, P. [patrickJMT]. (2009, October 24). Easily memorize the unit circle [Video]. YouTube. http://youtube.com/watch?v=03McKEg9ASA

Photograph Online 

Photographer. (Year). Photograph Title [Photograph]. Website Title. URL

Zemlianichenko, A. (2009). Russian President Boris Yeltsin dancing at a rock concert [Photograph]. The Pulitzer Prizes. https://www.puliter.org/winners/alexander-zemlianichenko

Thesis/Dissertation 

Author. (Year). Title [Doctoral Dissertation/Master's Thesis, University]. Publisher. URL

Chang, S. (2009). Relationship between active leisure and active vacations [Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida]. University of Florida Collections. http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UFE0024249/00001

Drug Monograph - print

Author. (Year). Drug: Article TItle. Publisher. 

Shionogi Pharma. (2010). Ulesfia Lotion: Highlights of prescribing information. Shionogi Pharma. 

*Replace publisher with website if online.