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Citation Format: AMA Style

Utilize these resources to learn more about popular citation styles used in the health sciences.

 

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AMA Citation Style refers to the citation and manual of style from the American Medical Association. Use the information and examples provided on this page to properly format in-text and reference list citations. 
The 11th edition of the AMA Manual of Style will be published 2020


The Reference List

Your reference list should begin on a new page following the text of your paper. Here, you will include complete citations for the resources you've used in your writing. 
Example:
Tips for formatting your reference list:
  • Number references should be listed in the order they appear in the text. Do not alphabetize.
  • Do not indent if the citation extends to a second line.
  • Authors are listed with the last name first followed by the first and middle initials without periods. (E.g.: Skinner, BF)
  • Up to 6 author names should be listed.  Over 6 authors, list only the first 3, followed by "et al." 
  • Journal titles abbreviated according to PubMed abbreviations and italicized.
  • In journal titles, capitalize all major words.
  • For online journals, the DOI is preferred over the URL link.
  • In book titles, capitalize all major words.
  • When URLs are used, ensure that they are a direct as possible and the link still functions as close to publication as possible.

 

In-Text Citations

In addition to the Reference list, sources are also cited using superscript numbers.
Example:
Tips for formatting your reference list:
  • References are numbered in consecutive order in the text, tables, or figures.
  • Use superscript Arabic numerals (see example below).  The first reference used in the documents should be listed first on the reference list.
  • Where to insert superscript numbers:
    • Immediately next to the fact, idea or quotation being cited.
    • Outside periods and commas.
    • Inside colons and semi-colons
  • If a reference is used multiple times in the same paper, use the same number throughout.
  • When more than two references are cited at one give place, use hyphens to join the first and last numbers of the series; use commas without space to separate other parts of multiple citations 1,4-7,19,24.
  • You may refer to the author's name (last name only) in the text of your paper, as long as these are accompanied by a numbered citation.

 

 

Cite a Record

Items in Discovery@RML search results include buttons to Cite, Link, Email, Save. These buttons appear on the results list, and in the detailed record.

"Cite A Record" displays two options:
  •  Export a citation to EndNote, to RefWorks if you have access to these services. If you use a different citation management software, such as EasyBib, Mendeley, or Zotero, choose Export to RIS which creates a file of tagged data.
  • Copy a citation by selecting a style from the drop/down list of 10 citation styles then copying the formatted citation to your document.
►It is still your responsibility to proofread the citation for accuracy! Pay close attention to capitalization and the formatting of names and pages. The citation may indicate missing data that you need to insert to complete your citation. Copying and pasting may result in the loss of indentation or formatting.

Books

Entry Type

Reference List

Book - single author

Author. Title of Book. Edition. Publication City, State: Publisher; year.

Shepard TH. Catalog of Teratogenic Agents. 7th ed. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press; 1992.

Book - multiple authors

Author(s). Title of Book. Edition. Publication City, State: Publisher; year.

Baselt RC, Cravey RH. Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man. 4th ed. Foster City, CA: Chemical Toxicology Institute; 1995. 

*Include up to 6 authors. If greater than 6, include the first 3 authors followed by 'et al.'

Book - with editors

Author(s), eds. Title of Book. Publication City, State: Publisher; year.

Armitage JO, Antman KH, eds. High-dose Cancer Therapy: Pharmacology, Hematopoietins, Stem Cells. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins; 1995.

Book - Chapter

Chapter Author(s). Chapter Title. In: Author(s), eds. Title of Book. Publication City, State: Publisher: year: page number(s).

Degner LF, McWilliams ME. Challenges in conducting cross-national nursing research. In: Fitzpatrick JJ, Stevenson JS, Polis NS, eds. Nursing Research and its Utilization: International State of the Science. New York, NY: Springer; 1994:211-215.

Book - Monographic Series

Author(s). Title of Book. Publisher City, State: Publisher; year. Series Title, No. Number in Series.

Davidoff RA. Migraine: Manifestations, Pathogenesis, and Management. Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis; 1995. Contemporary Neurology Series, No 42. 

Book - Online

Author(s), eds. Title of Book. Edition. Publisher City, State: Publisher; year. URL. Accessed date.

DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, Matzke GR, Wells BG, Posey LM, eds. Pharmacotherapy: A Psychophysiology Approach. 9th ed. New York: NY: McGraw-Hill; 2014. http://accesspharmacy.mhmedical/com/book/aspx?bookid=689. Accessed April 3, 2016. 

*follow the above example to cite online books in various formats.

 

Journals

Entry Type Reference List
Article - print, single author

Author. Article Title. Journal Abbreviation. Year;Vol(Issue):page numbers. 

Moldofsky H. Sleep, neuroimmune and neuroendocrine functions in fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. Adv Neuroimmunol. 1995;5(1):39-56.

Article - print, multiple authors

Author(s)..et al. Article Title. Journal Abbreviation. Year:Vol(Issue):page numbers.

Huang W, Lee SL, Lu LX. Mechanistic approaches to predicting oral drug absorption. AAPS J. 2009;11(2):2017-224.

*include up to 6 authors. If greater than 6, include the first 3 authors followed by ' et al.' 

Article - online, DOI

Author(s). Article Title. Journal Abbreviation. Year;Vol(Issue):page numbers. doi: doi number.

Kitajima TS, Kawashima SA, Watanabe Y. The conserved kinetochore protein shugoshin protects centromeric cohesion during meiosis. Nature. 2004;427(6974):510-517. doi: 101038/nature02312

Article - online, URL 

Author(s). Article Title. Journal Abbreviation. Year;Vol(Issue):page numbers. URL. Accessed date.

Kapur VK. Obstructive sleep apnea: diagnosis, epidemiology, and economics. Respir Care. 2010;55(9):1155-1167. http://www.rcjournal.com/contents/09.10/09.10.1155.pdf Accessed November 8, 2011.

Article - no page numbers

Author(s). Article Title. Journal Abbreviation. Year;Vol(Issue). URL. Accessed date.

Gore D, Haji SA, Balashanmugam A, et al. Light and electron microscopy of macular corneal dystrophy: a case study. Digit J Ophthalmol. 2004;10. http://djo.harvard.edu/site.php?ur=/physicians/oa/671. Accessed December 6, 2005. 

Miscellaneous

Entry Type  Reference List
Website

Author(s). Page Title. URL. Published date. Accessed date. 

National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Diabetic foot problems: prevention and management. National Guideline Clearinghouse. http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=49566$&search=diabetes. Published August 26, 2015. Accessed April 25, 2016.

Website - no author, no dates

Page Title. Website Title. URL. Accessed date.

Compound summary for CID 146571: Escitalopram Oxalate. PubChem Compound Database. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/146571. Accessed April 16, 2019.

Drug Monograph - print

Author(s). Monograph Title. Publisher City, State: Publisher; Year. 

Lisinopril. McEnvoy GK, ed. AHFS Drug Information 2014. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc.;2014.

Drug Monograph - online

Author(s). Monograph Title. Publisher. URL. Update date. Accessed date.

Lisinopril. AHFS DI (Adult and Pediatric). Lexicomp. http://online.lexi.com/lco/action/doc/retrieve/docid/complete_ashp/414040. Updated March 11, 2016. Accessed May 11, 2016.

Package Inserts - print

Drug name [package insert]. Publisher City, State: Publisher; Year.

Lamasil [package insert]. East Hanover, NJ: Sandoz Pharmaceutics Corporation; 1993.

Package Inserts - online

Drug name [package insert]. Publisher City, State: Publisher. URL. Published date. Accessed date.

Lovenoz [package insert]. Bridgewater, NJ: sanofi-aventis U.S. LLC. http://products.sanofi.us/lovenox/lovenox.html. Published April 20, 2011. Accessed May 10, 2016. 

Online Video

Video Title [video online]. Year. URL. Accessed date.

The Narcotic Farm - Part 1/3 [video online]. 2008. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8BZrsAh4kd0&feature=related. Accessed October 22, 2017.

Point of Care Tool

Author(s). Article Title. In: Author(s), ed. Database Name. Publisher City, State: Publisher; Year. URL. Accessed date.

Townsend, RR. Major side effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers. In: Post, T, ed. UpToDate. Waltham, MA.: UpToDate; 2016. www.updtodate.com. Accessed March 24, 2016.

Podcast

Authors(s). Podcast Title. Date. URL. Accessed date. 

Mason J, Bavolek R. Placenta Previa. Emergency Medicine Reviews and Perspectives. October 1, 2018. https://www.emrap.org/episode/emrap20181/placentaprevia. Accessed November 21, 2018.